Nanominox-MS - the innovative novelty on the world market of hair tonics Active ingredients :minoxidil sulfate 4%adenosinesophora flavescens extractcreatine ethyl estercepharanthinecyanocobalamine (Vitamin B12)ketoconazole Antioxidants : ascorbic acid (vitamin C), gamma tocopherol (vitamin E) Vehicle :coated PG-liposomes from high quality phosphatidylcholinePropylene glycol (PG) 10%carrageenandistilled water Consistency : liquid Suggested use : Apply 1 to 2 times daily to scalp and gently massage in. The product will be absorbed by the skin very fast and with virtually no visible residue. But to be sure reasonable absorption took place, let the product be absorbed for at least 10 minutes, in case you want to wash your hair after the application. For best results apply consistently. Storage : Store at room temperature. Product description :Nanominox©-MS has some common ingredients with Nanominox© (please read the text of the product Nanominox©) but it contains minoxidil sulfate instead of plain Minoxidil and it uses another vehicle, PG-liposomes. Minoxidil sulfate is the active metabolite of minoxidil. Minoxidil is a hair growth promoter that must be metabolized by sulfation to the active compound, minoxidil sulphate, before it can exert its positive effect on the proliferation of the dermal papilla cells of the hair follicle .In humans at least four human cytosolic sulfotransferases contribute to minoxidil sulfation . According to the above experiment from Upjohn, minoxidil sulphate is ca. 14 times more effective than plain minoxidil. We incorporate 4% minoxidil sulfate. But that does not mean we arrive at an too high 56% minoxidil concentration equivalent, because not all minoxidil sulfate will stay stable in the solution.The authors of the article also mention the possibility that the difference between good responsers and poor responsers to minoxidil may be due to a difference in their sulfotransferases metabolism in the skin. Since minoxidil sulphate is already sulphated its action does no longer depend on the sulfotransferases, therefore poor minoxidil responsers may become good responders with minoxidil sulphate.The sulfotransferases are also needed to activate physiological growth factors like HGF to their active sulphated form. Cytosolic sulfotransferases (ST) catalyze the sulfation of various phenolic agents, catecholamines, thyroid hormones, steroids, drugs, and procarcinogens, usually resulting in the inactivation and subsequent excretion of the compound. The author of  speculates that sulfotransferases might also be involved in bioinactivation of estrogens and androgens within skin. Therefore it is perhaps not a good idea to distract the sulfotransferases from their normal useful jobs by keeping them busy with the conversion of minoxidil to minoxidil sulphate. Obviously by using directly minoxidil sulphate one can avoid these possible adverse effects.Minoxidil sulfate is inherently unstable in an aqueous solution being hydrolyzed to the parent drug minoxidil . We hope we have managed to partly overcame this problem by the use of our coated PG-liposomes, which encapsulate the minoxidil sulphate and protect it from degradation to some degree. The coating with carrageenan was already effective in protecting Finasteride from degradation in coated liposomes in an experiment by B. Biruss and C. Valenta . The coating also reduced the diffusion rate of Finasteride out of the liposomes thereby keeping the substance inside the liposomes for a substancially longer time in . We assume the coating will also help to keep our Minoxidil sulfate inside the PG-liposomes. The coating did not only increased the chemical stability of the incorporated substances but also the microbial stability of these substances in liposomes in . In addition, we do not coat normal plain traditional liposomes, we coat a very new vehicle, PG-liposomes. PG-liposomes were superior to all other liposomal vehicles when it comes to the deposition of the difficult to process drug cinchocaine in the skin as was shown by Elsayed et al. in . Quote from  :"PG-liposomes with 10% PG significantly improved(P<0.01) cinchocaine="" skin="" deposition="" relative="" to="" all="" other="" br="">liposomal formulations, even relative to deformable liposomesand ethosomes, having reported promising properties as carriersfor skin delivery of drugs. Skin-deposited cinchocaine was3.0-, 2.1-, 2.6- and 2.0-fold higher from PG-liposomes with10% PG, relative to traditional liposomes, cholesterol-containingtraditional liposomes, deformable liposomes and ethosomes,respectively."PG-liposomes also show very good entrapment efficiency. Quote from  :"Cinchocaine PG-liposomes with 10% PGshowed significantly improved entrapment efficiency overtraditional liposomes and ethosomes."Our PG-liposomes contain only 10 Propylene glycol (PG). This is a 5 times reduction in PG content compared to a standard Minoxidil product which contains 50% PG and in addition 30% ethanol (alcohol). Our PG-liposomal Minxidil product does contain only 10% PG and no ethanol. Ethanol and PG can cause problems to some users and especially PG is a component, some users develop allergies against.